Bowen, M.E.; González, H.M. Childhood socioeconomic position and disability in later life: Results of the health and retirement study. Am. J. Public Health. 2010, 100, 197–203.
Herd, P.; Goesling, B.; House, J.S. Socioeconomic position and health: The differential effects of education versus income on the onset versus progression of health problems. J. Health Soc. Behav. 2007, 48, 223–238.
Kim, J. Intercohort trends in the relationship between education and health: Examining physical impairment and depressive symptomatology. J. Aging Health. 2008, 20, 671–693, doi:10.1177/0898264308321004.
Leopold, L.; Engelhardt, H. Education and physical health trajectories in old age. Evidence from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Int. J. Public Health. 2013, 58, 23–31.
Johnson––Lawrence, V.D.; Griffith, D.M.; Watkins, D.C. The effects of race, ethnicity and mood/anxiety disorders on the chronic physical health conditions of men from a national sample. Am. J. Men’s Health. 2013, 7, 58–67.
Herd, P.; Goesling, B.; House, J.S. Socioeconomic position and health: The differential effects of education versus income on the onset versus progression of health problems. J. Health Soc. Behav. 2007;48, 223–238.
Mirowsky, J.; Ross, C.E. Education, Social Status, and Health. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. 2003.
Alaimo, K.; Olson, C.M.; Frongillo, E.A. Jr; Briefel, R.R. Food insufficiency, family income, and health in US preschool and school–aged children. Am. J. Public Health. 2001, 91, 781.
Shah CP, Kahan, M., Krauser, J. The health of children of low–income families. CMAJ: Can. Med. Assoc. J. 1987, 137, 485.
Chen, E. Why socioeconomic status affects the health of children: A psychosocial perspective. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 2004, 13, 112–115.
Hunt, T.K.; Caldwell, C.H.; Assari, S. Family economic stress, quality of paternal relationship, and depressive symptoms among African American adolescent fathers. J. child fam. stud. 2015, 24, 3067–3078.
McLoyd, V.C. Socioeconomic disadvantage and child development. Am. Psychol. 1998, 53, 185.
McLoyd, V.C. The impact of economic hardship on Black families and children: Psychological distress, parenting, and socioemotional development. Child. Develop. 1990, 61, 311–346.
Baughcum, A.E.; Burklow, K.A.; Deeks, C.M.; Powers, S.W.; Whitaker, R.C. Maternal feeding practices and childhood obesity: A focus group study of low––income mothers. Arch. Pediatrics Adolesc. Med. 1998, 152, 1010–1014.
Assari, S. Unequal gain of equal resources across racial groups. Int. J. Health Policy Manag. 2017, 6, doi:10.15171/ijhpm.2017.90.
Assari, S. Health Disparities Due to Minorities Diminished Return among Black Americans: Policy Solutions. Soc. Issues Policy Rev. 2018, 12, 112–145.
Assari, S.; Nikahd, A.; Malekahmadi, M.R.; Lankarani, M.M.; Zamanian, H. Race by Gender Group Differences in the Protective Effects of Socioeconomic Factors Against Sustained Health Problems Across Five Domains. J. Racial Ethn. Health Dis. 2016, doi:10.1007/s40615–016–0291–0293.
Hudson DL, Bullard KM, Neighbors HW, Geronimus AT, Yang, J., Jackson JS. Are benefits conferred with greater socioeconomic position undermined by racial discrimination among African American men? J. Mens Health. 2012, 9, 127–136.
Hudson, D.L. In Race, socioeconomic position and depression: The mental health costs of upward mobility (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Michigan).
Fuller–Rowell, T.E.; Doan, S.N. The social costs of academic success across ethnic groups. Child. Dev. 2010, 81, 1696–1713, doi:10.1111/j.1467–8624.2010.01504.x.
Fuller––Rowell TE, Curtis, D.S.; Doan, S.N.; Coe, C.L. Racial disparities in the health benefits of educational attainment: A study of inflammatory trajectories among African American and white adults. Psychosom Med. 2015, 77, 33–40, doi:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000128.
Hudson, D.L.; Neighbors, H.W.; Geronimus, A.T.; Jackson, J.S. Racial Discrimination, John Henryism, and Depression Among African Americans. J. Black Psychol. 2016, 42, 221–243.
Neighbors, H.W.; Njai, R., Jackson, J.S. Race, ethnicity, John Henryism, and depressive symptoms: The national survey of American life adult reinterview. Res. Human Develop. 2007, 4, 71–87.
Neighbors, H.W.; Sellers, S.L.; Zhang, R.; Jackson, J.S. Goal–striving stress and racial differences in mental health. Race Soc. Probl. 2011, 3, 51–62.
Assari, S., Lankarani, M.M. Race and Urbanity Alter the Protective Effect of Education but not Income on Mortality. Front Public Health. 2016, 4, 100, doi:10.3389/fpubh.2016.00100.
Williams, D.R.; Yu, Y.; Jackson, J.S.; Anderson, N.B. Racial differences in physical and mental health: Socio–economic status, stress and discrimination. J. health psychol. 1997, 2, 335–351.
Hummer, R.A.; Lariscy, J.T. Educational attainment and adult mortality. In International Handbook of Adult Mortality; Springer: 2011, 2, 241–261.
Assari, S. Combined Racial and Gender Differences in the Long–Term Predictive Role of Education on Depressive Symptoms and Chronic Medical Conditions. J. Racial Ethn. Health Dispar. 2016, 3, 385–396, doi:10.1007/s40615–016–0239–0237.
Assari, S. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Additive Effects of Socio–economics, Psychiatric Disorders, and Subjective Religiosity on Suicidal Ideation among Blacks. Int. J. Prev. Med. 2015, 6, 53, doi:10.4103/2008–7802.158913.
Hayward, M.D.; Hummer, R.A.; Sasson, I. Trends and group differences in the association between educational attainment and U.S. adult mortality: Implications for understanding education's causal influence. Soc. Sci. Med. 2015, 127, 8–18.
Backlund, E., Sorlie, P.D.; Johnson, N.J. A comparison of the relationships of education and income with mortality: The National Longitudinal Mortality Study. Soc. Sci. Med 1999, 49, 1373–1384.
Everett, B.G.; Rehkopf, D.H.; Rogers, R.G. The Nonlinear Relationship between Education and Mortality: An Examination of Cohort, Race/Ethnic, and Gender Differences. Popul Res. Policy Rev. 2013, 32, 893–917.
Assari, S.; Thomas, A.; Caldwell, C.H.; Mincy, R.B. Blacks’ Diminished Health Return of Family Structure and Socioeconomic Status; 15 Years of Follow–up of a National Urban Sample of Youth. J. Urban Health 2018, 95, 21–35, doi:10.1007/s11524–017–0217–0213.
Assari, S., Caldwell, C.H. High Risk of Depression in High–Income African American Boys. J. Racial Ethn. Health Dispar. 2018, 5, 808–819, doi:10.1007/s40615–017–0426–0421.
Hudson, D.L.; Neighbors, H.W.; Geronimus, A.T.; Jackson, J.S. The relationship between socioeconomic position and depression among a US nationally representative sample of African Americans. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2012, 47, 373–381, doi:10.1007/s00127–011–0348–x.
Social Determinants of Depression: The Intersections of Race, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status. Brain Sci. 2017, 7, 156, doi:10.3390/brainsci7120156.
Eisenberg, D.; Hunt, J.B.; Speer, N. Mental Health in American Colleges and Universities: Variation across Student Subgroups and across Campuses. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 2013, 201, 60–67.
Lipson, S.; Gaddis, S.M.; Heinze, J.; Beck, K.; Eisenberg, D. Variations in Student Mental Health and Treatment Utilization Across US Colleges and Universities. J. Am. Coll. Health 2015, 63, 388–396.
Lipson, S.; Zhou, S.; Wagner, B.; Beck, K.; Eisenberg, D. Major differences: Variations in student mental health and service utilization across academic disciplines. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 2016, 30, 23–41.
CDC. CDC HRQOL–14 "Healthy Days Measure". Available online: https://www.cdc.gov/hrqol/hrqol14_measure.htm (accessed on 1 January 2018).
Assari, S. Family Income Reduces Risk of Obesity for White but Not Black Children. Children 2018, 5, 73.
Assari, S.; Lankarani, M.M. Education and Alcohol Consumption among Older Americans; Black–White Differences. Front Public Health. 2016, 4, 67, doi:10.3389/fpubh.2016.00067.
Adler, N.E.; Stewart, J. Reducing obesity: Motivating action while not blaming the victim. Milbank, Q. 2009, 87, 49–70, doi:10.1111/j.1468–0009.2009.00547.
Seeman, M. Alienation and anomie. In Robinson JR, et al., editors. In Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes. Academic Press: San Diego, CA, USA, 1991; Volume 1, pp. 291–372.
Thompson, S.C.; et al. The other side of perceived control: Disadvantages and negative effects. In: Spacapan, S., Oshkamp, S., The Social Psychology of Health. Beverly Hills: Sage; 1988. pp. 69–93.
Assari, S. Race, sense of control over life, and short–term risk of mortality among older adults in the United States. Arch. Med. Sci. 2017, 13, 1233–1240, doi:10.5114/aoms.2016.59740.
Assari, S. General Self–Efficacy and Mortality in the USA; Racial Differences. J. Racial Ethn. Health Dispar. 2017, 4, 746–757, doi:10.1007/s40615–016–0278–0270.
Assari, S. Life Expectancy Gain Due to Employment Status Depends on Race, Gender, Education, and Their Intersections. J. Racial Ethn. Health Dispar. 2018, 5, 375–386, doi:10.1007/s40615–017–0381–x.
Assari, S.; Caldwell, C.H. Neighborhood Safety and Major Depressive Disorder in a National Sample of Black Youth; Gender by Ethnic Differences. Children. 2017, 4, 14, doi:10.3390/children4020014.
Assari, S. Whites but Not Blacks Gain Life Expectancy from Social Contacts. Behav. Sci. 2017;7, 68, doi:10.3390/bs7040068.
Assari, S. The link between mental health and obesity: Role of individual and contextual factors. Int. J. Prev. Med. 2014, 5, 247–249.
Brunello, G., Fort, M., Schneeweis, N., Winter–Ebmer, R. The Causal Effect of Education on Health: What is the Role of Health Behaviors? Health Econ. 2016, 25, 314–336, doi:10.1002/hec.3141.
Andresen, E.M.; Malmgren, J.A.; Carter, W.B.; Patrick, D.L. Screening for depression in well older adults: Evaluation of a short form of the CES–D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale). Am. J. Prev. Med. 1994, 10, 77–84.
Antonakis, J.; Bendahan, S.; Jacquart, P.; Lalive, R. On making causal claims: A review and recommendations. Leadersh. Q. 2010, 21, 1086–1120.
Dawid, A.P.; Faigman, D.L.; Fienberg, S.E. Fitting science into legal contexts: Assessing effects of causes or causes of effects? Soc. Methods Res. 2014, 43, 359–390.
Assari, S.; Lankarani, M.M.; Caldwell, C.H. Does Discrimination Explain High Risk of Depression among High–Income African American Men? Behav. Sci. 2018, 8, E40, doi:10.3390/bs8040040.
Assari, S.; Lankarani, M.M. Workplace Racial Composition Explains High Perceived Discrimination of High Socioeconomic Status African American Men. Brain Sci. 2018, 8, 139, doi:10.3390/brainsci8080139.
Assari, S. Does School Racial Composition Explain Why High Income Black Youth Perceive More Discrimination? A. Gender Analysis. Brain Sci. 2018, 8,140, doi:10.3390/brainsci8080140.
Assari, S., Gibbons, F.X.; Simons, R.L. Perceived Discrimination among Black Youth: An 18–Year Longitudinal Study. Behav. Sci. 2018, 8, 44, doi:10.3390/bs8050044.
Assari, S.; Mistry, R. Educational Attainment and Smoking Status in a National Sample of American Adults; Evidence for the Blacks' Diminished Return. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2018, 15, 763, doi:10.3390/ijerph15040763.
Assari, S., Caldwell, C.H.; Mincy, R. Family Socioeconomic Status at Birth and Youth Impulsivity at Age 15; Blacks' Diminished Return. Children 2018, 5, 58, doi:10.3390/children5050058.
Assari, S., Caldwell, C.H.; Mincy, R.B. Maternal Educational Attainment at Birth Promotes Future Self–Rated Health of White but Not Black Youth: A 15–Year Cohort of a National Sample. J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7, 93, doi:10.3390/jcm7050093.
Assari, S.; Preiser, B.; Lankarani, M.M.; Caldwell, C.H. Subjective socioeconomic status moderates the association between discrimination and depression in African American Youth. Brain Sci. 2018, 8, 71.
Assari, S., Lankarani, M.M.; Caldwell, C.H. Discrimination increases suicidal ideation in black adolescents regardless of ethnicity and gender. Behav. Sci. 2017, 7, 75.
Assari, S.; Watkins, D.C.; Caldwell, C.H. Race attribution modifies the association between daily discrimination and major depressive disorder among blacks: The role of gender and ethnicity. J. Racial Ethn. Health Dispar. 2015, 2, 200–210.
Assari, S.; Lankarani, M.M. Discrimination and psychological distress: Gender differences among Arab Americans. Front. Psychiatry. 2017, 8, 23.
Blanden J, Gregg P. Family income and educational attainment: a review of approaches and evidence for Britain. Oxford Review of Economic Policy. 2004, 20(2):245-63.
Merritt MM, Bennett GG, Williams RB, Sollers JJ, Thayer JF. Low educational attainment, John Henryism, and cardiovascular reactivity to and recovery from personally relevant stress. Psychosomatic medicine. 2004, 66(1):49-55.
Liefbroer AC, Corijn M. Who, what, where, and when? Specifying the impact of educational attainment and labour force participation on family formation. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie. 1999, 15(1):45-75.
Robinson SM, Crozier SR, Borland SE, Hammond J, Barker DJ, Inskip HM. Impact of educational attainment on the quality of young women's diets. European journal of clinical nutrition. 2004,58(8):1174.
Assari S. Diminished economic return of socioeconomic status for black families. Soc. Sci. 2018;7:74.
Lantz PM, House JS, Lepkowski JM, Williams DR, Mero RP, Chen J. Socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and mortality: results from a nationally representative prospective study of US adults. Jama. 1998, 279(21):1703-8.
Assari, S.; Lankarani, M.M. Educational Attainment Promotes Fruit and Vegetable Intake for Whites but Not Blacks. J 2018, 1, 29-41.
Assari S, Gibbons FX, Simons RL. Perceived Discrimination among Black Youth: An 18-Year Longitudinal Study. Behav Sci, 2018, 8(5). pii: E44. doi: 10.3390/bs8050044.
Assari S. Does School Racial Composition Explain Why High Income Black Youth Perceive More Discrimination? A Gender Analysis. Brain Sci. 2018, 8(8). pii: E140. doi: 10.3390/brainsci8080140.
Assari S, Moghani Lankarani M. Workplace Racial Composition Explains High Perceived Discrimination of High Socioeconomic Status African American Men. Brain Sci. 2018, 8(8). pii: E139. doi: 10.3390/brainsci8080139
Mays VM, Cochran SD, Barnes NW. Race, race-based discrimination, and health outcomes among African Americans. Annu Rev Psychol. 2007;58:201-25.
Pascoe EA, Smart Richman L. Perceived discrimination and health: a meta-analytic review. Psychol Bull. 2009, 135(4):531-54. doi: 10.1037/a0016059.
Abramson, CM, Hashemi M, Sánchez-Jankowski, M. Perceived discrimination in US healthcare: charting the effects of key social characteristics within and across racial groups. Prev Med Rep. 2015;2:615–21.
Assari, S. Parental Education Attainment and Educational Upward Mobility; Role of Race and Gender. Behav. Sci. 2018, 8, 107.
Assari, S. Parental Educational Attainment and Mental Well-Being of College Students: Diminished Returns of Blacks. Brain Sci. 2018, 8, 193.
Assari S, Caldwell CH. Teacher Discrimination Reduces School Performance of African American Youth: Role of Gender. Brain Sci. 2018, 8(10). pii: E183. doi: 10.3390/brainsci8100183.
Assari S, Moghani Lankarani M, Caldwell CH. Discrimination Increases Suicidal Ideation in Black Adolescents Regardless of Ethnicity and Gender. Behav Sci, 2017, 7(4). pii: E75. doi: 10.3390/bs7040075.
Assari S, Lee DB, Nicklett EJ, Moghani Lankarani M, Piette JD, Aikens JE. Racial Discrimination in Health Care Is Associated with Worse Glycemic Control among Black Men but Not Black Women with Type 2 Diabetes. Front Public Health. 2017, 5:235. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2017.00235.
Assari S. Socioeconomic Status and Self-Rated Oral Health; Diminished Return among Hispanic Whites. Dent J. 2018, 6(2). pii: E11. doi: 10.3390/dj6020011.
Wrinkle RD, Stewart Jr J, Polinard JL. Public school quality, private schools, and race. American Journal of Political Science. 1999, 1248-53.
Boozer MA, Krueger AB, Wolkon S. Race and school quality since Brown vs. Board of Education. National bureau of economic research; 1992 Jun 1.
Diamond JB. Still separate and unequal: Examining race, opportunity, and school achievement in" integrated" suburbs. The Journal of Negro Education. 2006, 495-505.
DeCuir JT, Dixson AD. “So when it comes out, they aren’t that surprised that it is there”: Using critical race theory as a tool of analysis of race and racism in education. Educational researcher. 2004,33(5):26-31.
Assari S, Caldwell C, Zimmerman M. Family structure and subsequent anxiety symptoms; Minorities’ Diminished Return. Brain sciences. 2018,8(6):97.